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Lok Survey: Social Attitudes and Electoral Politics

India is undergoing significant social and political reconfigurations. To better understand these changes, CASI in conjunction with Milan Vaishnav of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, is conducting a multi-year household panel survey of a cross-section of India’s population with the financial support of the Lok Foundation. The sampling will include over 65,000 households in 24 states and union territories. The goal of the “Lok Surveys” is to contribute rigorous empirical research which deepens understanding of the Indian social fabric and informs public debate and policy-making on a range of issues.

Social cleavages and hierarches such as caste, class, religion, gender, age, rural/urban, and region of origin/language are believed to play a major role in public opinion and perception. Over the next several years, we intend to explore the degree of convergence (or divergence) in social attitudes on specific issue areas in political economy, development, and social change across the principal hierarchies and cleavages in Indian society. We will also examine attitudinal inter-linkages among these hierarchies and cleavages, and how these affect citizens’ attitudes on other important issues.

Read more about the findings of the first and second rounds of the Lok Surveys.

Full coverage of India Decides 2014: Voters' Attitudes

The results of the Lok 2014 Pre-election Survey were highlighted at the events below:

Tuesday, March 25 from 2:30 p.m. to 5:00 p.m.
at Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Washington DC
"India Decides 2014: Assessing the Elections and Beyond"
with Devesh Kapur, Milan Vaishnav, George Perkovich,
and CASI IAB members Rajiv Lall, Arvind Subramanian, and Ashley Tellis

Read More


Friday, March 28 from 12 noon to 1:30 p.m.
at the Center for the Advanced Study of India, University of Pennsylvania
"India Decides 2014: A Panel on the General Election"
with Neelanjan Sircar, Devesh Kapur, and Milan Vaishnav

Event Page


Research Affiliates

Milan Vaishnav

Senior Associate, South Asia Program

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace




Funding Support

Lok Foundation